Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia resulting in irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath and dizziness. Patients face an increased risk of thrombo-embolic complications such as stroke. The incidence of atrial fibrillation is age-dependent: in the overall population roughly 1%, in the elderly population up to 20%. By 2050, the number of patients with atrial fibrillation is estimated to rise by 250% due to demographic aging in Western nations. Prevention and effective therapy of atrial fibrillation are unmet needs. Atrial fibrillation is therefore an increasingly serious healthcare problem.